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Evaluation of Du Xiaoyu’s Lesson (by Moira)  

2009-06-13 17:32:44|  分类: 谈天说地 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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These are some of the comments which Du Xiao Yu’s colleagues made about her lesson:

                                                       

Her material is useful and instructive. When she read her story to us I could see that the students understand well. She organised the students to work in groups, which was an advantage because lots of students had ideas. She asked for feedback as well and learnt from last week when the feedback was poor. The disadvantages of her lesson were that her pronunciation and intonation were not good. The students were passive at the end of the lesson and perhaps they would be bored in Middle School. (Ma Xiaoyan)

 

I wonder about the level of the lesson. I think perhaps Middle School students might find the language rather easy and therefore they would not pay attention. I think Du Xiao Yu needs to push the clever students more and think about the students who find English difficult. I am not sure what she could do. There are so many students in class in China. (Dong Xiaorong)

 

When I returned from Lanzhou I found an e-mail from Du Xiaoyu about her lesson:

 

Hello, Moira, have you come back from Lanzhou? Perhaps I'd better call you to make sure. Anyway, what about your trip? Do you enjoy it? Now, I want to tell you my lesson on our Teaching Methodology last Thursday. My classmate asked me to have a lesson on our class. But I think my lesson is not as successful as I thought I had prepared lots before my lesson. But when I practised, I found I couldn't run my lesson following my plans. For example, I planned to offer my own opinion on discussion after that groups finished to offer their opinions of discussion, but I said no words on it and started the next step. I really don't know what was wrong with me at that moment. What's more, I had written 5 points down on my teaching aims, and I thought I had my lesson following my teaching aims. However, during my lesson's evaluation, my classmates point out there were no aims in my lesson. Oh, God save me! How terrible it was! Well, Moira, I found it hard to have a good lesson from my Practice. Would your like to give me more advice to improve my poor lesson?

 

By the way, I would like to tell you that I've received your mother's letter. I felt very excited and will write to her soon.

love,

Du Xiao Yu

 

I wrote straight back:

 

How lovely to hear from you. I am delighted that you took the lesson as planned and am very proud of your and your classmates for conducting the lesson so professionally. Well done. I wonder whether it would be a good idea to evaluate your lesson in detail next Thursday. Could you ask your classmates if they would agree to that? I think the ideas here are very important to discuss. How can we avoid such mistakes? How can we become more confident in the classroom? How can we help ourselves? What do you think?

 

And she replied the next day:

 

Hi, Moira, thank you for your kind words to my lesson. I am very glad and lucky that you decide to discuss my lesson on our class next Thursday. I have asked my classmates and they are happy. I think it's really important to me and our classmates. Also I found you are a responsible teacher, and you really encourage me a lot. Well, I am looking forword to our next lesson on Thursday.

 

I was stunned, quite frankly, by how responsibly the students had responded to the required autonomy of the lesson. They decided which students would teach, for how long, and how to conduct the evaluations. They set homework as well. The facilitators, I learnt later, also specified the overall aims of the lessons. After some questioning they emerged as having been to:

 

l      let students practice their teaching;

l      evaluate the advantages and disadvantages;

l      give facilitators a chance to organise a lesson;

l      monitor what we have learnt so far from our lessons in Teaching Methodology.

 

The latter one impresses me very much. Here I begin to see that the learning some of the students are doing is becoming organic. They are learning the skills of setting aims, monitoring and reviewing, and recognizing the place of these insights in their development as teachers, and the place of that development in the learning of their students.

 

 

Evaluation of Zhang Hongmei’s Lesson:

Zhang Hongmei’s lesson was conducted more recently. She took a fairly traditional approach to a lesson of grammar with a senior Middle School class. She wanted to acquaint her students with two new constructions and chose a dialogue through which to do it. She had written the dialogue on the board prior to the lesson and went through her aims for the lesson clearly and then proceeded to familiarize the students with the dialogue. However, as Ma Xiao Ying wrote in her evaluation:

 

Where was the time for the students to practise? Zhang Hongmei used good English and understood the knowledge well, but she didn’t allow students time to be active.

 

Wang Decheng said in the summing up:

 

I think the students would learn quite a lot about grammar, but they didn’t have a chance to practise. I think Zhang Hongmei could let the students do both. That is what Moira is teaching us, I think. We can do both. She missed an opportunity.

 

Indeed in the only time in the 20 minutes when Hongmei gave the students a chance to practise one of the new phrases in the dialogue, she came up to me at the back and said:

 

‘I’ve missed something here. I know that my grammar is good, but the students are bored. I don’t know what to do.’

 

I answered that perhaps she could let the students go through the dialogue in pairs. In the debriefing I made the point that teaching grammar was still necessary, but there that were ways of combining the two methodologies in order to maximize the learning. Hongmei’s lesson led to a series of ideas which were reflected in their journals, which for brevity’s sake I will include here only one entry which is typical of the level of engagement of these wonderful students:

 

We have looked at ways of putting western methodology and Chinese methodology together. The examination system requires good grades and does this still in traditional ways, but Moira has shown us how we can teach grammar with active students. When I am a teacher I want to try new ways with the old ways. (Xi Jian Chun).

 

Shortly after her lesson, Zhang Hongmei became ill with the nephritis which now plagues her. She wrote me the touching letter about her hospital stay which you have read earlier in the paper. After her release from hospital, I asked her round for the afternoon so that she might have an opportunity to talk. She was keen to resume her work and so we talked about her lesson. This is a transcript of notes I took at the time.

 

ML…You said there were differences between your ways of teaching and your own teachers at school. Can you tell me about that? Tell me about your method for the lesson. What made you do it like that?

ZH: I suppose I did it like my teachers in some ways. I had many ideas but when I knew I must do it, I remembered how my teachers did it and I taught like that as well. I thought about the steps we have done in methodology. About starting well, clearly, with aims and then the dialogue and then the practice – but there wasn’t much of that! – (both of us laugh)

ZH: then evaluation at the end to see what they had learnt. There was a difference between this and my teachers. Most of what I said was in English, not Chinese. I explained grammar in Chinese. This is helpful because in China a lot of students don’t use listening skills. Colleagues often lack this ability. They use tapes which are limited. It is better to do it in the classroom.

ML: I think the standard of your grammar was an advantage. Any other differences?

ZH: Well, actually, something the same. In this class I was the important one. I spoke the most. I talked all the time really, except for once. I knew it wasn’t good, but I didn’t know how to stop it.

ML: What might you have done?

ZH: It’s difficult for us to break this tradition of teaching. But I can see now I could ask the students to talk the dialogue. But I worry about time. I had 20 minutes.

ML: So what matters in the learning? What is most important?

ZH: There are always two things, aren’t there? Grammatical understanding, and then using the grammar. Always understanding and using. Those two things are both important, but you show us that although they are different, they can be taught together. I forgot this in my lesson.

ML: I think you’ve put that really well, Hongmei. Knowing and using. We need to find ways to combine these two in our teaching. That will enable us to keep the good things about Chinese methodology and introduce into it some ways of helping our students practically.

 

I am impressed by the level of Hongmei’s insights and ability to articulate her ideas. Li Ling, the Vice Dean, leader of the Communist Party in the College, and powerful figure, has attended many of Zhang Hongmei’s lessons on a Thursday afternoon and said on one occasion how much she enjoys the lessons because she and other colleagues who have attended them, can see how they have developed in logic and practical use from the beginning. I include this comment because it shows, I believe, two things:

 

-         I have to an extent, managed to communicate some of my educational values to my students and colleagues, which is, after all, one of the main reasons I have come to China;

-         the ideas behind action planning, evaluation as process, are communicable within a system that has different values.

 

 

Evaluation of my own educational development-work as a VSO volunteer:

A summative evaluation is not entirely appropriate, given my belief in the power of evaluation as process and the fact that the course is not yet complete. However, there are a few things, which at this stage of my teaching and learning, I would like to say, mostly as markers for future development.

 

l      I am pleased with what I have achieved this term. I had to start somewhere epistemologically very distant from where I wanted the students to be. I believe that through the action planning and evaluation-as-process stages we have explored, the students have begun the processes of enquiry, which can lead to an improvement in the quality of their own and their future students’ learning. I have learnt much about the contexts here, about the conditions in which students approach their studies, and about how I might do things differently next time.

 

l      I believe I have fulfilled some of the VSO requirements about development work, in the sense that I have planned my own obsolescence from the outset. For example, the students’ ability to take on their own structured lessons and evaluations in my absence suggests their growing autonomy. This is further suggested in their early exploration of e-mail as a medium through which they can ask questions, not only of me, but, I gather, of each other. I also believe that e-mail gives me students a greater sense of the scope of their utterances, using it as they will when I return to England for the Winter holidays, and for such things as greetings cards over Christmas and New Year to me and to their friends.

 

l      I have learnt that at times I need to explain more fully my processes to the students. Although many students have had an opportunity to give micro-lessons, some have not, and this has caused some disquiet. I always intended these lessons to be exemplary, and useful for evaluation rather than vehicles for teaching practice (because they simply aren’t realistic enough), but the students have latched onto them as practical opportunities. I will either change the organization of the course next time so that each student has a chance, or – and I think this is preferable – I will explain the evaluative value of these events.

 

l      I have learnt that education and context are more intimately and intricately dialectically connected than I realized before, and this has had an impact on my developmental value of responsibility. I have, for example, taken on more work from VSO than I would probably have done in the past. I have worked with Sue Kelliher (Programme Officer for VSO) on VSO’s monitoring and evaluation programme, and may in March 2002 be going to Kazakhstan to represent China VSO on monitoring and evaluation. I see profound links between my work in the classroom with the future English-teachers of China and working on the macro-politics and systems which determine the future direction of VSO itself. I am also going to be working with my Dean on the programme to modernise methodology in China. I now perceive the growth of my value of responsibility as having to take more of an account of context, of social pressure, of political circumstances, than has been the case in my previous educational work. If educational responsibility is my central developmental value in dialectical relationship with other values in me like love, rigour, and ethics, then the growth of my value of responsibility has a profound effect on the growth of those other values. Future research will explore the effects on my educational development of the development of those values.

l      I am aware of some of the limitations of this paper and I am sure my readers will acquaint me with more! It is Eisner’s (1993) dilemma again that I am experiencing. This paper is like my experience but it cannot be my experience. I am beginning to learn that words, however skillfully I employ them, do not do justice to the richness and complexity of the educative relationships with my students. And it is particularly important, writing as I do from a Northern perspective not to assume that my values and the values of the college, geographical area and ethical basis of the people with whom I live and work are the same. I am reminded of Peggy Kok’s (1988) Masters dissertation in which she wrote about the conflict of matching Eastern and Western values. This has been my experience here, and as I come to terms slowly with the differences in values, (at the moment I feel I am only just beginning to recognize them) I see how crucial it is to represent my research in as authentic and multi-dimensional way as possible. I agree with Jack Whitehead in his emphasis on the visual as a significant marker of authenticity in presenting research findings. I would hope to be able to present visual dimensions of my research with my next paper. I perceive the conflict in values, the development of educative relationships with my students, my developmental value of responsibility and the visual representation of my research, to be intimately related.

 

Epilogue: An Educational Conversation

If anything were to convince me that my coming to China were worthwhile, it is the following conversation. It seems, even now in retrospect, a miracle. Although this paper is a representation of my research process with my Methodology students, I am not quite sure how this conversation happened. I do believe that I have had an educational influence here, and that this conversation is in some measure a sign of this influence. However, I will not claim this conversation as my success. It belongs to the students.

 

On the 30th December, I asked Du Xiao Yu’s group to complete their journal work, which should show the development of their thinking over this term. Some of the students needed to consider the evaluations of their colleagues’ micro-lessons, or create a new action plan. I was astounded by the conversation between a group of three of them, Du Xiao Yu (DXY), Li Yuanmiao (LYM) and Li Yingtong (LYT), and was lucky enough to be able to take notes of some of their conversation about Li Yuanmiao’s action plan. However, before I go on to show you the conversation itself, I would like to explain why it has made such a huge impression on me. In fact, I am astounded by it, for the following reasons:

 

First, I did not ask the students to speak in English, or indeed to work in groups, although they are used to working in pairs on their action plans. It is the norm in my lessons for all discourse to be in English. However, in this difficult area of understanding, I would have expected them to speak in Chinese. Sometimes I have asked them to speak in their native language in order to deliberate about some difficult intellectual point. Sometimes they do, but a few will doggedly speak in English.

 

Secondly the nature of the conversation you about to read, suggests to me that they are actually beginning to be action researchers, enquiring genuinely into how they can improve something together. They did not seek clarification about what they were doing from me, which would always have happened when I first came here, but seemed to realize that their enquiry was the point. In all the time I have been teaching here in China, I have not encountered such spontaneous confirmation of an action research process. I have set them up, I have asked the students to work in pairs, in groups, to share their learning, but this was new. It is the most thrilling event of my time here, because in this conversation I feel I witnessed such hope for China. In this one incident with young people working so hard on behalf of themselves and their country, I feel vindicated in my decision to come here. And more than that, they were spontaneously taking it upon themselves to enquire!

 

Thirdly, I am staggered by the clarity of their critical thinking, particularly Li Yuanmiao’s. It has been my experience that Chinese students are often uncritical of the methodologies which they encounter (uncritical in the sense of not analyzing closely and coming to rational conclusions of their own making).

 

Fourthy, the ability shown by all the students in the areas of synthesis strikes me forcefully. They weigh up ideas and ask questions to which they want to know the answers. As I have mentioned before, knowledge in China is conceived of as being a revered domain reserved for those with power, granted only in accordance to those who conform to familiar societal conditions and requirements. Li Yuanmiao’s understanding of the confluence between teaching and learning (see his last comment) turns ancient precepts on their head, and suggests a dialectical relationship between teaching and learning. This is not the traditional view of knowledge in China!

 

Fifthly, the scope of the conversation impresses me greatly. These young people have clearly thought a great deal about what it is they are doing. They have related their future job of teaching to the wider society, and looked critically at old and new methodologies. They seem to understand both the possibilities and restrictions of the education system in China and are trying to work out how they can negotiate with the realities of teaching in Chinese schools – limited resources, large classes, long hours, poor conditions and so on.

And finally, their courage impresses me. I am deeply moved by the way in which they envisage their future lives and determine to do their best, without reproach, without complaint, but with great optimism and genuine warmth for the children they will encounter in the classroom. I am awed by their vision and sense of purpose. Their zeal is truly moving for me, and makes me feel both grateful and humble to be here to be a part of their sense of development and purpose.

 

So now to the conversation itself. Li Yuanmiao is suggesting the importance of organizing his knowledge of English in ways which the students can understand.

 

LYM: But it is our job to arrange knowledge for the students.

LYT: I need to know more knowledge before I can know how to organize it. I must read books by experts.

DXY: We must learn through experience, I think.

LYT: We have the theory, though, but it’s not enough.

DXY: Can you explain what do you mean?

LYT: I haven’t had enough experience. I have read many books and Moira has taught us many new ways which we have talked about and some of us have taught short lessons, but still I have not taught a real class. That’s what I mean.

LYM: There is another thing, though, I think. We must know about the psychology of our students in order to help them learn.

DXY: The psychology of the students. I don’t understand. Do you mean to know about psychology in the textbooks?

LYM: No, I mean from experience. There are many areas we cannot understand because we have not done them.

DXY: You mean know them as individuals.

LYM: So that we can learn about their learning styles. Moira has shown us how differently we learn. I like to think and then do.

LYT: I like to read a lot and then think.

LYM: So how does the student think? And then we can help them learn English more efficiently. So to organize the knowledge I must know my students as well as the subject.

LYT: But I want to read articles about methodology by famous writers so that I can learn.

LYM: And that is still theory. If we want to know it we must do it, I think. It is useful for organizing the class to know what is appropriate and what isn’t. Not what the books say. The books don’t teach our students! We teach them.

LYT: Another problem I have, I don’t have enough ideas to teach with my class.

DXY: Yes, I understand. When I taught my short lesson, I wanted to teach new words – this was the knowledge for the lesson – but it didn’t work.

LYM: Why not?

DXY: Because I didn’t know what every student understands, and because the class didn’t behave always. And because it was not real.

LYM: What do you mean?

DXY: I could not demonstrate my meanings with the new vocabulary. I wanted to show them the real things but I could only use my pictures and my words.

LYM: But that is the real world. You see, in the textbooks they give us many things, but then in the classrooms, the resources are limited and we must do what we can. Our job is to use the limited resources in the best way we can. The teacher is the best resource. This is something that Moira shows us and she is right. She shows us to pay attention to different learning styles, to different abilities, to different moods and feelings. She teaches us to pay attention to our students so that they can learn in the best way. She doesn’t have many resources, but we still learn.

LYT: Yes, we must vary our methods for the different ideas and knowledge.

LYM: Yes, have many teaching styles.

DXY: Yes, or games with them which teach them something.

LYT: You see, it is in our minds that we have limits. We are told this by our own teachers. We are told that we don’t have many ideas. We are told that there is one way to do something. But that is also in our minds. This has controlled our thinking for a long time. I want to break out of that thinking.

LYM: But sometimes it is difficult to break it.

LYT: Why is it? Tell me that!

LYM: Because our parents and teachers and our history tells us to think in a particular way. It has become fixed in the way we live. So many people think they cannot change it and give up.

LYT: You see I don’t know sometimes now if it is right or wrong. Sometimes one way is right but the next time it is wrong. We must decide every time for ourselves what is wrong or what is right. We need to refresh our ideology.

LYM: This is where I see the biggest problem in the educational system. They want to improve grades and we must follow the national system.

LYT: Most important, I think, is the educational textbooks have been changing. In many schools now, it is different from the past. I remember in my own school some of the lessons were very boring because the teacher only gave us grammar and drill drill drill all the time. We didn’t speak much English or listen to it.

DXY: Yes, we need progress. We can’t get it immediately, but there are some changes, but there are also some fixed forms. Our teachers tell us that we must master these but now they are paying more attention to speaking and listening.

LYM: ‘Junior and Senior English for China’ (textbooks taught in every Chinese Middle school) are not the same as in our time. Our country is exploring new ways. We must change step by step. We cannot expect everything to change today…

LYT: Yes, but we must remember that in some schools it is still difficult for some teachers to accept the new communicative methods. It takes time.

LYM: Yes it takes time, because the examinations are still pushing the education system in this country.

LYT: Yes, maybe it is difficult, but then we must change the ideology. We have two jobs as teachers. One is to help our students learn English, and the other is to change the system. It is hard work, but it is our work.

LYM: From childhood to maturity children have tests. If we can change the system we must use the old ways with new ways. Our job is to use our individual teaching style to evoke interest and activity and catch good scores for the students.

DXY: So we use new methods with old Chinese methods and the students want to learn and they catch good scores.

LYT: Yes, I think that is success for us to teach. Because we teach not just English. Moira says this, I think she is right. We teach people and they live tomorrow and help China development. We teach the whole person. We have two roles here. To use our minds and hearts to teach English and to help our country develop with new ways in teaching methodology.

DXY: But I think the old thinking steps in.

LYT: If we let it. Our teachers may have made some mistakes in the past, but we don’t have to follow that.

LYM: Yes, there is still a problem in China with methodology, but we can help to solve it with our colleagues.

DXY: But I think there is another problem…

LYM: I…

DXY: Please let me continue. If we do this, we give students chances with communicative style, then perhaps their grades are not so good. This puts pressure on students and they will be unhappy. Is that fair?

LYM: No, that is not fair. This is why we learn how to put together Chinese methodology and western methodology. We can explain this to the students.

LYT: There is no pressure but in people’s minds. If I think I can do this job, I can do it. I must use my heart and my mind to work with my students together, then we will be successful.

DXY: So we need to think how we can teach grammar in communicative ways? Yes?

LYM: Yes, I think so. We must always remember the purpose of teaching is learning. It is about communication. Reading, speaking listening and writing. And if you analyse examinations recently, you will see that the system now pays attention to speaking and listening as well. Not just grammar. Our job is to organize our own understanding so that we can help our students to learn. We must inspire them and help them to understand why they are learning. It is like this action plan: ‘Why are you concerned?’ If we understand why we are learning, it helps us to learn. Yes, we will sometimes find it difficult with colleagues who want to stay with the old ways, but we must be strong. In my mind, my ability must create the purpose in every lesson: to help my students learn new ways so that we can help China. Everything we do is for the development of China and for people in China. Every homework that we give. Every action that we perform. Every activity we ask the students to do. This must have a good purpose. To help.

 

My grateful thanks to my colleagues, Lewis Hussain and Jack Whitehead who offered feedback on earlier drafts of this paper. My sincere thanks are also due to my colleagues and most of all to my third year Methodology students at Guyuan Teachers College without whose inspiration and support this paper would not have been written at all.

 

Epilogue

 

I also wish to add an epilogue. This is because this morning (10/01/02) I had my methodology class two, examinations. I set them the examination in two parts. In the first part they were required to write about those aspects of methodology they had learnt this term, saying why they would pick particular aspects as important. I wanted to test their critical thinking and understanding. I further wanted to make the point that I valued their knowledge and understanding. I could tell that this set-up was slightly puzzling for them even now. I insisted upon absolute silence and no copying. Cheating is truly endemic in Chinese society. It is not seen as wrong, simply as a way of gaining points. I set up the classroom to obviate any 'messing about'. The after the break I asked them to work with their learning partners on a practical action plan which they would want to take with them into their imminent teaching practices. I encouraged them to talk together (in English of course, but I never seem to need to remind this wonderful group of that). I wanted to make the point that I value knowledge, their knowledge, but they can't improve it, in my opinion, about teaching, unless they engage in meaningful dialogue. I explained all this at the end of the lesson  - in fact they thought it was funny that we were going to have an evaluation of the examination, but I reckon they humour me now! Anyway, Li Ying Tong, whose insights you will have seen in the conversation at the end of the paper, wrote the following. I noticed as well that she went through Li Yuanmiao's plan and discussed with him better ways of expressing himself. She is a wonder, that girl. Just amazing. Read on:

 

1) What do I want to improve?

 

I want to improve my teaching of grammar.

 

2) Why are you concerned?

 

In China during the 1980s we mainly taught a foreign language according to its grammar but the results were not so good. Because the students were taught in this way they were mainly good at reading and writing, but the communication ability is poor. Then in the 1990s we used communication ways to teach. We ignored the grammar teaching. I was a student taught like this. But the result is also poor. The studetns can recite the simple everyday English but learning more than this is difficult for them. They cannot also read the original works as well as the students in the 1980s. Now we are asked to teach the students not only to focus on communication but on grammar too. We are asked to combine them.As a near-future teacher I find I lack some skills of grammar and how to teach this.

 

3) What can I do to improve my work?

 

To improve my grammar-teaching skill I must improve my own knowledge of grammar, improve my weakness and read some books written by experts in grammar teaching and articles in academic magazines so that I can collect some ways and  them in real teaching situations.

 

4) In the near future when I become a teacher, first my students can help me. They can tell mewhether my ways have worked, if they understand the grammar or not and give me some advice. Also Li Yuanmiao, my long-term learning partner can help me with grammar learning.

 

5) How will I know if my work has improved?

 

From my evaluations of my lessons, from the students' improvement, from my colleagues' advice, I will know if I have improved. I would like to write articles about how I learn to improve my teaching of grammar because, like Moira, I want to improve my practice and this is one way I think. I think I will learn for ever.

 

This impresses me so much because of her integration of evaluation-skills, her real understanding of improvement as a process of integration within her learning and most of all perhaps, her grasp of her context. I remember when I first asked the students to think about why they might care about something. The answers were uniformly socially-correct, expressions of, 'that's my job', rather than any exploration of the underlying values.

Bibilography:

Eisner, E., (1993), ‘Forms of representation and the future of educational research’, A.E.R.A. Presidential Address.

Kok, P., (1988), ‘The Art of a Educational Inquirer’, Masters of Education dissertation, Department of Education, The University of Bath.

Laidlaw, M., (1996), ‘How can I create my living educational theory as I account for my own educational development?’ Ph.D. thesis, http://www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw , Department of Education, University of Bath.

Laidlaw, M., (1997), ‘In Loco Parentis with Sally: a matter of fairness and love’, http://www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw

Laidlaw, M., (1998),Accounting for an improvement in the quality of my provision for some Equal Opportunities issues within my English teaching, 1997-8’, http://www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw

Laidlaw, M., (2000), 'How can I continue to improve the quality of my provision of particular Equal Opportunities values in my teaching of English to a Year Eight group?’ http://www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw

Laidlaw, M., (2001a), In the last months of my employment at Oldfield School, how can I help 8X to enhance their sense of community, as I assist them in improving the quality of their learning about English?’ 'http://www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw

Laidlaw, M., (2001b), ‘What has the Holocaust got to do with Education anyway?’ Accounting for my values of responsibility as a developmental standard of judgement in the process of helping to improve the quality of educational influence with students over thirteen years. http://www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw

   

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