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A summary of language teaching approaches and methods(3-4)  

2008-12-28 23:17:12|  分类: 关于教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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4. Introduce the change and innovation in language teaching from 1880 to 1980 briefly. What is the developing tendency of language teaching researches during the 100 years? (Stern, 1983: 113) 

Change and innovation in language teaching: 1880 – 1980 (Stern, 1983: 113)

Period

Decade

Main features

 

I

1880-

1920

(1914-18,WWI) Reform/Direct Method, Phonetics

 

II

1920-

1940

 

(Interwar period) Compromise method, modern foreign language study (U.S.A./Canada) (Stern, 1983: 101), Reading Method (Stern, 1983: 460-462), BASIC English

 

 

III

1940-

1950

(1939-45,WWII) Linguistic approach to language teaching, American Army Method. Intensive language teaching

 

1950-

1960

Audiolingual (U.S.A.) and audiovisual (France/Britain = situational method, 情景法:幻灯、图片、电影、录像等) methods,

FLES ( = Foreign Languages in the Elementary School)

Language laboratory

Psycholinguistics

 

1960-

1970

Audiolingual habit theory vs. Cognitive code learning(Carroll, 1966)

Impact of Chomsky’s theory.

Sociolinguistics

Method research (Scherer-Wertheimer, Pennsylvania Project, etc.)

Method analysis(Mackey, 1965)

 

IV

1970-

1980

 

 

Breakaway from method concept                                       New methods

 

Curriculum emphasis

Speech acts

Needs analysis

Discourse analysis

Language for special purposes

Immersion

Proficiency levels

 

 

 

 

 

 

Human relations emphasis

individualization

‘autonomie de l’apprenant’

‘humanistic techniques’

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Language learning research emphasis

First and second languages

Child and adult acquisition/learning

Error analysis

Interlanguage studies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Silent way

Community language learning

Suggestopedia, etc

 

 

 

 

 

Communicative Approaches

       ↘           ↓                ↓           ↙

 

· Summary of Period IV

  During Period IV, researchers broke away from method concept, i.e. researchers no longer think that one single method is the main approach to LT. we could try different LT methods. So many new methods were born from 1970s to 1990s, e.g. immersion, the silent way suggestopedia, the lexical approach, TBLT etc.

20世纪70 -80年代,二语教学研究的特征是“摆脱了单一的方法概念”(Stern, 1983:113 Break away from method concept), 即“不再把某一个单独的方法看成是占主导地位的”(p. 477), 也就是说“不把教学看成是受一种完全一致的方法所制约的”(p.494)。 用中国人的话来说,在这一时期有关外语教学的研究呈现出了“百花齐放,百家争鸣”的可喜局面。故这一时期产生了许多新的教学法。

尽管如此,Stern把这一时期概括为交际教学为中心的时期,是个箭头均指向CA, 因为他认为:交际能力(communicative conpetence, p.111)这一概念“从70年代中期起集中体现了教育语言学与语言教学法在实践、理论与研究等方面的活动”(p.111 )。

So during Period IV, CA is the major LT method.

 · Three major tendencies of LT researches during 100 years:

1) a historic focus-shifting from teaching to learning in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

 LT methods---learners---learning process(contrastive analysis, error analysis, IL, the role of learners’ existing knowledge, learner strategies)

· the individual differences between learners: age, aptitude, motivation, cognitive style, personality…

2) the research on language use and the learner training of language use(语言使用研究和学习者语言使用能力的培养)

3)cognition: the role of cognition in LT research, Chomsky

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