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Part III. A summary of language teaching approaches and methods(3-3)  

2008-12-28 23:13:58|  分类: 关于教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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3. How do you describe “A General Model for Second Language Teaching” at p. 44 (Stern, 1983: 44)? What are the characteristics of the model? How do you understand them? (Stern, 1983: 43-50)

          Figure 3.7 A general model for second language teaching (Stern, 1983: 44)

 1) How do you describe “A General Model for Second Language Teaching” at p. 44 (Stern, 1983: 44)?

  This model was designed by Stern in 1983. The model is made up of 3 levels:

 Level 1: Foundations (of SL teaching)/theory level, the most abstract part in the model, including: the history of language teaching, linguistics, sociology, sociolinguistics and anthropology, psychology and psycholinguistics and educational theory.

 If we want do develop a theory of SL teaching, we must consider these foundations. In this respect, Stern’s model is similar to Campbell’s, Ingram’s, especially to Spolsky’s (Stern, 1983: 36-39). However, Stern places more emphasis on language pedagogy and educational thought than others.

 Level 2: Interlevel, i.e. the theory and research of educational/applied linguistics, a level between Level 1(theoretical foundations of language teaching) and Level 3(the practice of language education). So, similar to Campbell’s and Spolsky’s models, level 2 is a bridge /mediator between theory and practice. It is more concrete than Level 1, but more abstract than Level 3.

  Level 1 studies/researches make contributions to Level 2. There are 4 key concepts at Level 2: language, learning, teaching and context. In language teaching, we have to operate with the 4 key concepts (see details at Stern, 1983: 48-49). This is the point of view of the model. This is the point of view of the model. Educational/applied linguistics involves both theory and research. So we could make educational linguistics suitable to language education in general(i.e. policy, objectives etc.) or to specific topics within language education (i.e. reading, writing, etc.).

 Level 3: Practice. The level of practice is divided into methodology and organization. Methodology is relevant to organization at the different stages of education from the primary/fundamental stage to the advanced stage.

  In short,this is a model from theory to practice. Level 1 is the most abstract, and Level 3 the most concrete. The point of view of Stern’s model: in language teaching/education, we have to operate with the 4 key concepts: language, learning, teaching and context (Stern, 1983: 48-49).

·this is the framework of the whole book. According to Fig. 3.7, there are 5 major foundations for the research on SL teaching:

Level 1: foundations in Fig. 3.7

Contents of the book

History of LT

Pt. 2 Historical perspectives

(History of LT)

linguistics

Pt. 3 Concepts of language

sociology

Pt. 4 Concepts of society

psychology

Pt. 5 Concepts of LL

Eduacational theory

Pt. 6 Concepts of LT

Title of the book

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

The book focuses on Level 1 and Level 2. Although Level 3 is not the focus of the book, we could feel that level 3 is constantly in Stern’s mind when he discusses Level 1 and Level 2.

In short, this book lays more emphasis on theory than practice.

 2) What are the characteristics of the model? How do you understand them? (Stern, 1983: 43-50)

4 characteristics (Stern, 1983: 46-48):

 i. Comprehensiveness

Stern’s model concerns all SL teaching and learning situations: not only FL learning in schools, universities and other institutions, but also SL learning of language minorities, e.g. migrant workers or immigrants, i.e. it involves not only very formal language learners, but also informal language learners (e.g. workers, immigrants, travelers, children, etc.).

 ii. Principle of interaction

Interaction is the principle of the model. Bidirectional arrows “←→” are used: 1to show the interaction among the 3 levels; 2to achieve coherence and consistency of thought (characteristics of a good theory/model).

 The principle of interaction also implies that theory development flows not only upwards, but also downwards. i.e. theory could be used to conduct our practice, and practice could sharpen theories, or practitioner(language teachers/ learners) could contribute ideas, information, problem and questions to theorists.

 iii. Multifactor view

Many factors are involved in the model, e.g. sociology, psychology, context, teaching, learning, methodology and organization etc., or theorists, applied linguists, language teachers / learners etc. it shows that stern takes a multifactor view in the model. Why?

 Because language, language teaching and learning are very complicated. So we have to consider many factors both in our practice and research. In addition, a multifactor approach is more productive than a single-factor one.

iv. Multidisciplinary approach

 multidisciplinary / interdisciplinary: of more than one science or subject

 Similar to the other models, Stern’s model is also multidisciplinary because language teaching is multidisciplinary.

 The overall design of this model is similar to Spolsky’s and Campbell’s, i.e. Stern’s model emphasizes the flow of thought both from theory to practice and from practice to theory. This is the theme/central idea of the book.

 

 

 

3 levels in Stern’s model

 

Level 3: Practice

Most concrete

Stern thinks that the systematic treatment of Level 3 will be the subject of another study.

Level 2: Interlevel

Educational/applied linguistics

 

Focus of the book

 

Level 1: Foundations

Most abstract

 

In brief, this model is a map or guide for the book. It could be regarded a T1 in language teaching, i.e. a conceptual framework of a language teaching theory.

 

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